In a previous post, I described the remote sensing orbit into which Tianwen-1 had moved on November 8. Now it has been in this orbit for more than one month, and AMSAT-DL has been collecting telemetry almost daily with the 20 metre antenna at Bochum obseratory. Therefore, it is a good moment to review the state vector data and look at how the orbit has evolved with time.
In one of my previous posts about Voyager 1, I stated that the Voyager probes used as forward error correction only the k=7, r=1/2 CCSDS convolutional code, and that Reed-Solomon wasn’t used. However, some days ago, Brett Gottula asked about this, citing several sources that stated that the Voyager probes used Reed-Solomon coding after their encounter with Saturn.
My source for stating that Reed-Solomon wasn’t used was some private communication with DSN operators. Since the XML files describing the configuration of the DSN receivers for Voyager 1 didn’t mention Reed-Solomon either, I had no reason to question this. However, the DSN only processes the spacecraft data up to some point (which usually includes all FEC decoding), and then passes the spacecraft frames to the mission project team without really looking at their contents. Therefore, it might be the case that it’s the project team the one who handles the Reed-Solomon code for the Voyagers. This would make sense specially if the code was something custom, rather than the CCSDS code (recall that Voyager predates the CCSDS standards). If this were true, the DSN wouldn’t really care if there is Reed-Solomon or not, and they might have just forgotten about it.
After looking at the frames I had decoded from Voyager 1 in more detail, I remarked that Brett might be right. Doing some more analysis, I have managed to check that in fact the Voyager 1 frames used Reed-Solomon as described in the references that Brett mentioned. In this post I give a detailed look at the Reed-Solomon code used by the Voyager probes, compare it with the CCSDS code, and show how to perform Reed-Solomon decoding in the frames I decoded in the last post. The middle section of this post is rather math heavy, so readers might want to skip it and go directly to the section where Reed-Solomon codewords in the Voyager 1 frames are decoded.
Queqiao is the communications relay satellite for the Chang’e 4 Chinese lunar lander mission to the far side of the Moon. It is in a halo orbit around the Earth-Moon Largrange L2 point and provides communications to the lander in Von Kármán crater.
Queqiao transmits telemetry in S-band, using the frequency 2234.5 MHz. The modulation and coding is similar to other recent Chinese probes, such as Chang’e 5 and Tianwen-1. Here I report an interesting bug that I found in the Reed-Solomon encoding performed by Queqiao.
Back in September, I showed how to decode the telemetry signal from Voyager 1 using a recording made with the Green Bank Telescope in 2015 by the Breakthrough Listen project. The recording was only 22.57 seconds long, so it didn’t even contain a complete telemetry frame. To study the contents of the telemetry, more data would be needed. Often we can learn things about the structure of the telemetry frames by comparing several consecutive frames. Fields whose contents don’t change, counters, and other features become apparent.
Some time after writing that post, Steve Croft, from BSRC, pointed me to another set of recordings of Voyager 1 from 16 July 2020 (MJD 59046.8). They were also made by Breakthrough Listen with the Green Bank Telescope, but they are longer. This post is an analysis of this set of recordings.
DART, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, is a NASA mission that launched last Wednesday from Vandenberg. The goal of this mission is to crash the spacecraft into the small asteroid Dimorphos, allowing us to measure the small change in the orbit of the asteroid caused by the impact.
From the communications perspective, this spacecraft is the first to use a Spiral Radial Line Slot Array (RLSA) as high-gain antenna. Details about the antenna design can be seen in this paper. The paper shows that antenna polarization is LHCP. Most DSN communications use RHCP, although there are a few notable exceptions (for instance Emirates Mars Mission), and the DSN stations are equipped to handle both polarizations. I’m not sure if DART is indeed using LHCP or if this is just a matter of the convention in the definition of the polarization used in the paper (there are actually two opposite conventions to define the sense of circular polarization).
A few hours after launch, as the spacecraft passed over Europe, Miguel CT1BYM and Iban EB3FRN recorded the X-band telemetry signal from DART at 8421.79 MHz. This post is a first analysis of the signal.
On November 8, the Tianwen-1 orbiter made a manoeuvre to move itself to the remote sensing orbit, as reported by Chinese media. This orbit is the final orbit in the mission, as depicted in this figure from Wikipedia. The main goal of this orbit is to study the geophysical properties of Mars with all the orbiter instruments (see this paper) and to continue acting as a communications relay for the rover Zhurong.
As usual, AMSAT-DL has been collecting telemetry from Tianwen-1 with the 20 metre antenna at Bochum observatory, including spacecraft state vectors. This allows us to study the orbit change manoeuvre and the properties of the remote sensing orbit. This post is a first look at the state vector data.
In my previous post I presented a description of the X-band telemetry of Lucy, including a GNU Radio decoder, some recordings from the Allen Telecope Array, and an analysis of some of the telemetry received in the two days following the launch. This is a short post with some updates about the telemetry analysis of the Lucy mission.
Lucy is a spacecraft that will study the Trojan asteroids, during a twelve year mission. It was launched last Saturday at 9:34 UTC from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas V rocket. Its telemetry downlink is on X-band, at a frequency of 8445.768 MHz.
Iban Cardona EB3FRN made a 30 minute recording of the telemetry downlink at 19:00 UTC on Saturday, as the spacecraft first appeared over Europe after launch. r00t.cz did a brief analysis of this recording overnight, and then published some more details about the telemetry data. On Sunday, at 8:52 UTC, I did a long recording with one of the dishes in the Allen Telescope Array. This recording lasts 3 hours 26 minutes, and ends when the spacecraft set below the 16 degree elevation mask of the ATA. In this post I give a first analysis of the telemetry data in both recordings.
The recording done at ATA can be downloaded from the following datasets in Zenodo:
- Lucy recording with Allen Telescope Array on 2021-10-17: part 1/2, polarization X
- Lucy recording with Allen Telescope Array on 2021-10-17: part 1/2, polarization Y
- Lucy recording with Allen Telescope Array on 2021-10-17: part 2/2, polarization X
- Lucy recording with Allen Telescope Array on 2021-10-17: part 2/2, polarization Y
As you may have seen in my last post, lately I have been reviewing some of data we have from Tianwen-1. In the days following the landing of Zhurong, back in May, we had so much data in our hands that I couldn’t post about it in a timely manner. We were wondering if we could use this data to plan for a number of experiments with the 20 meter antenna at Bochum observatory. These included trying to receive data from the rover relayed by the orbiter, and trying to detect the rover’s direct X-band link to Earth. We didn’t manage to do any of these, unfortunately, as they had a great deal of luck involved.
During the summer I’ve been involved in several activities such as collaborating with the SETI Institute and BSRC REU summer student programmes by teaching some GNU Radio lessons, and preparing material for GRCon21 (a talk, a workshop and paper). Now I have more time at hand, so it’s good to revisit this data. In this post I’ll look at Tianwen-1’s orbit after the release of the lander.
It has been a while since the last time I wrote an update about Tianwen-1’s attitude. In that post I showed that Tianwen-1 had changed to a sun angle of 0 degrees with respect to the spacecraft’s X axis on 2020-10-22. Since then, nothing changed, even after the spacecraft arrived to Mars orbit on February 2021, so I have been sloppy and ignored the ADCS telemetry for quite a while.
As you may have heard, the 20 metre antenna at Bochum observatory had a failure at the beginning of June due to a thunderstorm. It has been under repair until the end of August, when it became operational again. As AMSAT-DL has now returned to receive telemetry from Tianwen-1 at Bochum, I am now reviewing the new data to see if anything interesting might have happened in the last months.
I have updated my attitude study Jupyter notebook, since the previous version assumed that the spacecraft’s state vectors were heliocentric coordinates, so it didn’t work in Mars orbit, due to the change to Mars-centric coordinates.
When plotting the new data I have learned that Tianwen-1 changed attitude during the release of the lander on May 14, and has maintained this new attitude until the present day.