The HamSci Ham Radio Scienze Citizen Investigation community organized earlier this month the December 2021 Eclipse Festival of Frequency Measurement. The goal of this activity was to measure the frequency of HF time signals such as WWV and RWM over the course of ten days. The experiment lasted from December 1 to December 10, so it included the total eclipse over Antarctica of December 4, which happened between 5:29 and 9:37 UTC.
I participated in this activity with my HF station, which consists of a Hermes-Lite 2 beta2 DDC/DUC SDR transceiver and an end-fed random wire antenna about 17 metres long. I used a 10 MHz reference from a GPSDO as described in this post to lock the Hermes-Lite 2 sampling clock. Instead of measuring frequency in real time, I recorded IQ data at 200 sps for the WWV carrier at 5000, 10000 and 15000 kHz and for the RWM carrier at 4996, 9996 and 14996 kHz, so that the data could be post processed later with any kind of algorithms. I have published my recordings in the “December 2021 Eclipse Festival of Frequency Measurment IQ recording by station EA4GPZ” dataset in Zenodo.
In this post I process the IQ recordings to produce waterfalls that give us an overview of the data. The frequency measurement will be done in a later post.
Interested by the forthcoming HamSci December 2021 eclipse festival of frequency measurement, I have decided to enable and test the external 10 MHz input of my Hermes-Lite 2 DDC/DUC HF transceiver. This will allow me to use a GPSDO (the Vectron MD-011 which has appeared in other posts) to reference the Hermes-Lite 2 in order to measure frequency accurately.
The Hermes-Lite 2 and other SDR transceivers based on the openHPSDR protocol support sending bandscope data from the SDR to the PC. The bandscope data consists in fixed-length chunks of samples taken directly from the ADC. Since the ADC in a DDC receiver runs at a high sampling rate, by taking the Fourier transform of these chunks, the bandscope data can be used to display a spectrum or waterfall of a huge frequency range, covering all the HF bands. In the case of the Hermes-Lite 2, the ADC samples at 76.8MHz, so the bandscope data gives us a spectrum from 0 to 38.4MHz.
Note that the the chunks of the bandscope data are not contiguous. Streaming samples at 76.8MHz from the ADC into the PC continuously would be a lot of data. Thus, a chunk is taken and stored in the FPGA and then sent to the PC slowly. Therefore, bandscope data is only intended for wideband spectral analysis and probably has very little use outside of that.
By recording and processing the bandscope data, one can produce plots similar to the full day waterfall from the University of Twente WebSDR. Here I describe my first tests using Python.
Since several months ago, I’m operating my HF station “remotely” from another room in the house. The station consists of a Hermes-Lite 2.0 beta2, a Hardrock-50 HF amplifier, and an outdoor MFJ-993BRT antenna tuner. My plan is to operate all of this from a laptop with ethernet connection from anywhere in the house.
The Hermes-Lite poses no problem, since it is always controlled by ethernet only. However, I need to be able to operate the Hardrock amplifier remotely: I need to change the bands, which is usually done via buttons on its front panel, and to check the output power and SWR, if only to be sure that the antenna tuner has found a tuning solution. This is usually done by looking at the Hardrock front panel display or by looking at a Diamond SX20C power/SWR meter that I also have installed in the shack.
I have taken advantage of the holidays to finish making all of this controllable by ethernet. Here I describe my solution.
I have made a mains choke for my HF station, following Ian GM3SEK’s design, which involves twisting the three mains wires together and passing as many turns as possible through a Fair-Rite 0431177081 snap-on ferrite core. I wanted to measure the choke’s impedance to get an idea of its performance, so I’ve used my Hermes-Lite 2.0 beta2 in VNA mode.
Lately, I have been trying to make an amplitude and phase calibration of my Hermes-Lite 2 beta2 in order to use Linrad’s smart noise blanker. This is quite a task because Linrad doesn’t support the Hermes-Lite 2 directly. Today I’ve finally managed to do it. Here I describe all my setup and calibration results.
This weekend I have recorded the full EAPSK63 Spanish PSK63 contest in the 40m band with the goal of playing back the recording later and reporting the stations showing excessively high IMD levels. In PSK contests, it is usual to see terribly distorted signals, which are the result of reckless operating techniques and stations which are setup inadequately. Contest rules don’t help much, as they are usually too weak to prevent distorted signals from interfering other participants. Amateurs should take care and strive to produce a signal as clean as possible. For instance, in the US, Part 97 101 a) states that “each amateur station must be operated in accordance with good engineering and good amateur practice”. Here I describe the signal processing done in this study and list a “hall of shame” of the worst stations I have spotted in my recording. I will notify by email the contest manager and all the stations in this list with the hope that the situation improves in the future.