The Analog Devices AD9361 is an RFIC that is used in several popular SDRs, such as the USRP B2xx series and E3xx series, the BladeRF 2.0 micro, the ADALM Pluto, the ANTSDR, and in many other products (some of these use the AD9363 or the AD9364, which are similar chips in the same family). This RFIC has a nominal maximum sample rate of 61.44 Msps, and an analog bandwidth of 56 MHz.
A few days ago, Nuand has published a new software version that allows running the BladeRF 2.0 at 122.88 Msps. This has attracted some interest in Twitter, specially regarding questions about how they manage to achieve this and how good the performance is. One of the changes that Nuand has done to support the 122.88 Msps mode is an 8-bit wire protocol for the USB 3.0 interface. This is required to be able to pass 122.88 Msps through the USB. This change affects the FPGA gateware and host drivers. The other change involves manually setting some registers of the AD9361 in the host drivers in order to bypass a half-band filter, effectively doubling the output sample rate. In this post I will give a short review of the AD9361 register settings that enable the 122.88 Msps mode.
In my previous post I set out to measure the phase difference between the QO-100 8APSK and BPSK beacons. One of the things I mentioned is that the frequency separation between these two beacons was approximately 1.6 Hz larger than the nominal 245 kHz.
A frequency error of a couple of Hz is typical when working with SDRs unless special care is taken. Many SDRs allow choosing the sample rate and centre frequency with great flexibility, but the drawback is that the frequencies that are achieved are often not exactly the ones we indicated. Fractional-N synthesis PLLs are used to generate the sampling clock and local oscillator, so there are small rounding errors in the generated frequencies.
With enough knowledge of how the SDR hardware works and how it is configured, it is possible to determine these frequency errors exactly, as a rational number \(p/q\) that we can calculate explicitly, multiplied by the reference frequency of the SDR. Then we can use this exact value to correct our measurements.
I have asked Mario Lorenz DL5MLO and Kurt Moraw DJ0ABR the details of how the beacons are generated in the Bochum groundstation. Two ADALM Pluto‘s are used: one generates the CW and BPSK beacons, and the other generates the 8APSK multimedia beacon. With the data they have given me, I have been able to compute the frequency separation of the 8APSK and BPSK beacons exactly, and the result matches well my experimental observations.
In this post we will look at how the fractional-N synthesis calculations for the Pluto can be done. Since the Pluto uses an AD9363 RFIC, these calculations are applicable to any product using one of the chips from the AD936x family, and to the FMCOMMS3 evaluation board.