LTE Transmission Mode 4 (closed-loop spatial multiplexing)

This is a long overdue post. In 2022, I wrote a series of posts about LTE as I studied its physical layer to understand it better. In the last post, I decoded the PDCCH (physical downlink control channel), which contains control information about each PDSCH (physical downlink shared channel) transmission. I found that, in the recording that I was using, some PDSCH transmissions used Transmission Mode 4 (TM4), which stands for closed-loop spatial multiplexing. For an eNB with two antenna ports (which is what I recorded), this transmission mode sends either one or two codewords simultaneously over the two ports by using a precoding matrix that is chosen from a list that contains a few options. The choice is done by means of channel-state information from the UE (hence the “closed-loop” in the name).

In the post I found a transmission where only one codeword was transmitted. It used the precoding matrix \([1, i]^T/\sqrt{2}\). This basically means that a 90º phase offset is applied to the two antenna ports as they simultaneously transmit the same data. I mentioned that this was the reason why I obtained bad results when I tried to equalize this PDSCH transmission using transmit diversity in another previous post, and that in a future post I would show how to equalize this transmission correctly. I have realized that I never wrote this post, so now it is as good a time as any.